Sabtu, 10 November 2012

Macam - Macam Pompa (Pump)

Pompa diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 yaitu :
  1. Dinamik, terbagi menjadi 3 yaitu :
  • Sentrifugal
  • Aksial / propeller
  • Pengaruh khusus, terbagi menjadi 4 yaitu (jet / eductor, gas lift, hidraulic ram, electromagnetic)
      2.  Perpindahan Positif (Positive Displacement), terbagi menjadi 2 yaitu :
  • Rotary, terbagi menjadi 4 yaitu : (gear dalam, gear luar, screw, vane pump)
  • Piston (reciprocating)
"Pumps are classified into 2 such as :
  1. Dynamic Pump, divided into 3 such as :
  • Centrifugal Pump
  • Axial / Propeller
  • Special Effect, divided into 4 such as ( jet / eductor, gas lift, hidraulic ram, electromagnetic)
     2.  Positive Displacement, divided into 2 are :
  • Rotary Pump, divided into 4 such as (inner gear, outer gear, screw, vane pump)
  • Reciprocating Pump"
Akan saya jabarkan secara sedehana sebagai berikut :
  1. Dinamik, prinsip kerja mengubah kecepatan fluida tinggi menjadi tekanan sehingga terjadi dorongan aliran
Klasifikasinya :
  • Efisiensi rendah dibanding tipe positive displacement
  • Kecepatan dan debit fluida tinggi
  • Biaya instalasi dan perawatan murah
"I will explain simplely like below :
  1. Dynamic Pump, working principle is conversion of  fluid in high velocity to pressure so occur flowing push
The classification are :
  • Low efficiency if compared with positive displacement pump types
  • High fluid of velocity and debit
  • Cheap cost installation and maintenance "
Pompa dinamik terbagi menjadi 3 yaitu :
  • Sentrifugal, prinsip kerja mengalirkan fluida dengan kecepatan tinggi oleh baling-baling dan dikonversikan menjadi tekanan oleh casing dg menurunkan kecepatan.
Klasifikasinya :
  • Aliran yg halus di dalam pompa
  • Tekanan discharge (keluaran) seragam
  • Kecepatan tinggi
  • Biaya rendah
  • Pompa paling umum digunakan, salah satu contohnya pompa air di rumah-rumah
  • Utk fluida dg viskositas < 0,2 Pa s (encer)
"Dynamic pump divided into 3 such as :
  • Centrifugal pump, working principle is flowing fluid with high velocity by impeller and convert to pressure by casing with low velocity
The classifications are :
  • Smooth flow inside pump
  • Uniform discharge pressure
  • High velocity
  • Low cost
  • The most commonly pump is used, example is pump in our house
  • For fluid with viscosity 0,2 Pa s (aqueous)"
Centrifugal Pump
  • Aksial / Propeller, prinsip kerjanya fluida digerakkan oleh propeller yg berputar dg kecepatan tinggi dan diubah menjadi tekanan
Klasifikasinya :
  • Head rendah dg kecepatan aliran besar
  • Biasanya utk pengairan
"Axial / Propeller Pump, working principle is fluid that turned by propeller which moving with high velocity and converted to pressure
The classifications are :
  • Low head with large velocity flow
  • Commonly is used in irrigation"
Axial Pump
  • Pengaruh Khusus (Special Effect), terbagi menjadi 4 yaitu :
# Jet / Eductor (Injector), prisip kerjanya menggunakan nozzle yg bekerja sesuai efek venturi shg bisa mengkonversi energi tekanan fluida menjadi energi gerak dan sisi suction (hisap) bertekanan rendah dan fluida mengalir.

"# Jet / Eductor (Injector), working principle is using nozzle which working with venturi effect so can convert fluid pressure energy to kinetic energy and suction side low pressure and fluid is flow."
Jet / Eductor (Injector) Pump
# Gas Lift, prinsip kerjanya menginjeksikan gas tertentu shg berat fluida turun dan reservoir dpt mengangkat fluida ke permukaan kolom.

"# Gas Lift, working principle is injection spesific gas so heavy fluid decrease and reservoir can lift the fluid to upper column."
Gas Lift
# Hidraulic Ram, prinsip kerjanya menggunakan energi kinetik dari cairan dan energi tsb diubah menjadi energi tekan dg pemukulan yg tiba-tiba.

"# Hidraulic Ram, working principle is using kinetic energy from liquid and that energy is converted to pressure energy with suddenly beat."
Hidraulic Ram Pump
# Electromagnetic, prinsip kerjanya menggerakkan fluida dengan gaya elektromagnetik yg disebabkan medan magnetik yg dialirkan. Penggunaan terbatas pada logam.

"# Electromagnetic, working principle is moving fluid with electromagnetic force which caused by magnetic area that streamed. Application is limited on metal."
Electromagnetic Pump
     2. Perpindahan Positif / Positive Displacement, prinsip kerjanya memberikan gaya tertentu pada volume fluida, sehingga terjadi pengecilan ruang volume fluida shg tekanan naik dan terjadi dorongan.
Klasifikasinya :
  • Perpindahan fluida stabil
  • Bisa digunakan utk head tinggi
  • Kapasitas rendah
  • Memberikan gaya per berat yg besar
     "2. Positive Displacement, working principle is give the special force at fluid volume, so occur reduction of volume so increase pressure and occur push. 
The classifications are :
  • Fluid movement is stable
  • Can be used for high head
  • Low capacity
  • Give large force per weight." 
Pompa perpindahan positif terbagi menjadi 2 yaitu :
  • Pompa Rotary, prinsip kerja menggerakkan fluida dg berputarnya rotor di dalam casing (rumah pompa), dengan bergeraknya rotor terjadi perubahan volume antara suction dan discharge shg fluida bisa terdorong keluar
Klasifikasinya :
  • Cocok utk fluida kental
  • Efisiensi tinggi
  • Kecepatan rendah dan stabil
  • Aliran fluida lancar
"Positve displacement are divided into 2 such as :


Rotary Pump, working principle is moving fluid with rotate of rotor in casing, so with moving rotor occur change of volume between suction and discharge so fluid push out.

The classifications are :
  • Suitable for viscous fluid
  • High efficiency
  • Low velocity and stable
  • Smoth fluid flow"
Pompa rotary dibagi menjadi 4 yaitu :

Roda Gigi Luar, prinsip kerjanya saat antar roda gigi bertemu terjadi penghisapan fluida kemudian berputar dan diakhir saat roda gigi akan pisah fluida terlempar keluar.

"Rotary pump are divided into 4 such as :


# Outside Gear, working priciple is when gear meet occur suction fluid then around and finish  when gear separate fluid is thrown out."

Roda Gigi Luar
# Roda Gigi Dalamprinsip kerjanya roda gigi dalam yang berpasangan dengan roda gigi kecil dengan penggigian luar yang bebas, jadi roda gigi dalam yg melakukan penghisapan fluida.


"# Inside Gear, working principle is couple inside gear with small gear with free outside gear, so inside gear doing suction fluid."

Roda Gigi Dalam
# Pompa Ulir / Skrup (Screw), prinsip kerjanya jika jumlah skrup 1 maka skrup spiral berputar sedangkan jika jumlah skrup 2, 3 keatas maka skrup saling berputar dan salah satu ada yg diam.

"# Screw Pump, working principle is if number of screw is 1 so spiral screw moving and if number of screw 2, 3 above so screw each other moving and one of them motionless."
Screw Pump
# Vane Pump, prinsip kerjanya baling-baling menekan lubang rumah pompa oleh gaya sentrifugal bila rotor diputar. Cairan yang terjebak diantara 2 baling-baling dibawa berputar dan dipaksa keluar dari sisi buang pompa.


"# Vane Pump, working principle is impeller press casing by centrifugal force if rotor is rotated. Liquid is trapped between 2 impeller then brought and out from exhaust pump."

  • Pompa Piston (Reciprocating), prinsip kerjanya gerakan piston naik turun, saat piston turun berarti volume silinder besar, tekanan turun maka fluida masuk kemudian saat piston naik berarti volume silinder mengecil dan tekanan naik maka fluida terdorong keluar
Klasifikasinya :
  • Utk memompa endapan dan lumpur
  • Tekanan tinggi shg bisa digunakan utk head tinggi
  • Kapasitas rendah
  • Aliran tdk kontinyu
  • "Reciprocating Pump, working principle is movement of piston up and down, when piston down mean large volume of cylinder, low pressure so fluid s entered then when piston up mean low volume cylinder and high pressure so fluid push out.
The classifications are :
  • For pumping sediment and sludge
  • High pressure so can be used for high head
  • Low capacity
  • Discontinue flow"
Reciprocating Pump

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